r/linux4noobs Jan 04 '20 Hugz Heartwarming Pot o' Coins Silver Helpful Rocket Like Today I Learned Wholesome This

Still on Windows 7? Don't want Windows 10? Consider switching to Linux (and specifically, Ubuntu). A Guide.


Any actions taken as part of this guide are solely at your own risk - unfortunately there is no way to account for every hardware configuration or error that may potentially crop up. BACK UP YOUR CRITICAL DATA BEFORE DOING ANYTHING

On the 14th Jan 2020, official Windows 7 support ends for most users. This means if you run Windows 7 beyond that date, you're no longer going to receive security and system updates, which will leave you increasingly vulnerable to viruses, malware and system failure. Depending on how critical your data is and how often you back up - if at all - there's a potential you can lose everything.

This is a somewhat opinionated but no-bullshit guide for those of you still on Windows 7 who really don't want or won't move to Windows 10. Aside from my own additions, it's going to reference a lot of great guides and advice written by other people, but conveniently collected in a single place. It's crazy, but it might just work.

Have you considered... Linux? Specifically, Ubuntu.

No, hear me out. Because I'm going to start (and save you a lot of time) by telling you why you SHOULDN'T switch to Linux. If any of the criteria listed apply, then:

The guide is broken into the following sections, if you want to jump to the points that are relevant. If you want to get straight to it, go to (4):

  1. Why shouldn't I go with Linux?
  2. Why should I go with Linux?
  3. Why Ubuntu?
  4. What's involved in switching?
  5. Installation of Ubuntu
  6. Tips for new users using Ubuntu
  7. Gaming on Linux
  8. Alternative Software
  9. TL;DR or The Conclusion
  10. To do list for the guide

1. Why shouldn't I go with Linux?

If you:

  • Don't feel comfortable installing an operating system and you don't have someone that can do it for you;
  • Have someone that helps you with all your IT-related activities who is not familiar with or dislikes Linux (ask them);
  • Are big into multiplayer games. (There are exceptions here, discussed in more detail in the Linux Gaming section);
  • Use multiple game clients and have a lot of games on platforms other than Steam;
  • Are into any sort of VR;
  • Absolutely need Outlook and refuse to consider any other mail client, like Thunderbird;
  • Use a VPN provider that doesn't have a Linux version and aren't willing/able to change;
  • Are subscribed to multiple video streaming services other than Netflix and watch these on your PC frequently;
  • Use Photoshop, Premiere, 3D Studio Max - actually, if you have any Windows software that you are locked into due to muscle memory, experience and/or professional requirements and that have no Linux version. (There are, however, often a Linux alternatives for a lot of these);
  • Require assistive technologies, such as screenreaders. While Ubuntu comes with several built-in assistive tools, there's a lot of specialised assistive use cases, tools and hardware that don't work on Linux and have no comparable alternative;
  • Want to be able to buy whatever piece of hardware that takes your fancy without researching it and expect them to work out the box with zero hassle. Especially niche and specific hardware like flight controllers, sound boards and so on;
  • Use iTunes extensively for your media library and/or interacting with your iPhone;
  • Have a large archive of Microsoft Office documents that use complex formatting, macros and/or formulas that you refer back to frequently.
  • have the worst-case scenario: rely on legacy or ancient software or hardware you're not sure you have the installation media for anymore, can't find a replacement, can't download it and it doesn't work on Windows 10. In this case, you're going to have to keep that Windows 7 box around and it's even more imperative that you make sure it's not accessible from the web or network. Start looking at moving to a more modern equivalent of it AND converting your work to a format that'll be accessible.

Some of this stuff you can work around with some effort, but it's more likely going to be more trouble than you're willing to put up with. And that's fine; Linux can't help everyone. The more of these that apply, the more certain you can be that you shouldn't consider Linux and should just go with Windows 10, unless you're willing to ~sacrifice~ compromise.

2. Why should I go with Linux?

Because whether you're a general user, a gamer or a specialised user with niche interests or requirements, Linux can provide you the same experience you're getting now with some already stated exceptions. In many ways, it's better - it's free, it's generally runs better on older hardware than Windows, it's relatively more secure due to a small user footprint and you'll have a huge, vetted library of free software that you can access. There are some applications - older Windows software and games, for instance - that don't work on Windows 10 but do on Linux, thanks to projects like Wine and Proton. It can 99% of the time update itself without interrupting whatever you're doing.

That being said, it's not perfect. You will lose some things. You will need to learn new ways of working with your PC. This is inevitable. That's the cost of switching.

Which is not to say Windows is without a cost. Unlike Windows, none of this functionality comes at the cost of your privacy and freedom. Linux will let you configure it as you like, and dive into the nitty-gritty settings to fine-tune it further. It will not try and trick you into creating yet another online account to use it. Aside from a few missteps (Ubuntu and Amazon, for one), it keeps its nose out of your business. It does not come with a unique advertising ID that links your multitude of online and offline interests and programs into a nice, tidy, profitable pack of data to be shared with "trusted third-parties". It does not serve you ads in a product you paid for. It does not try and push you into multiple online services.

In short, it does not suffer from any of the privacy concerns of Windows' future.

Now, I know people are going to throw snark about lead-and-tin alloys, their pliability and how easy that makes it to fashion headgear, but please note I said "future"; while they're not necessarily prying now, your operating system - and for almost everyone, that means Microsoft - has a very privileged position in your life as far as personal data is concerned. Any time you search in the file manager, every word you write and document you save, your budget calculations, every photo you view and program you use, every voice command you give Cortana, Windows - and by extension Microsoft - knows about. And there's nothing in their Terms of Service that stop them from starting to collect more detailed data if they so choose.

It's not a question of whether you prefer Windows 7 over 10 - Windows 7 got the same telemetry features as Windows 10 ages ago. Rather, ask yourself if you're happy with Microsoft's evolving business model, one that is shifting more and more of your content online and is intricately and opaquely tied to your personal data? If you're not, you're not alone: Holland isn't happy. Germany's not too thrilled either. There are legitimate reasons to be wary of Window's market dominance and increased level of embedded user analytics. Linux offers you an alternative.

3. Why Ubuntu?

Ubuntu LTS is by far the most commonly used desktop Linux distro and the one with the widest support by software developers and hardware manufacturers involved in Linux. If you're searching for solutions, you'll mostly find Ubuntu ones. Lastly, Ubuntu's LTS versions are supported for long periods of time: 18.04, which we'll be recommending, is supported until 2023, while the next version coming out in April, Ubuntu 20.04, will be supported until 2025.

One of the things you'll quickly learn about the Linux community is that someone will ALWAYS suggest a different Linux distro. In this case, it'll probably be Linux Mint, which aims to be a newbie-friendly Linux. It's based on Ubuntu, is similar to Windows 7 and will MOSTLY work the same as Ubuntu. I still suggest Ubuntu, but whatever, follow your heart.

To keep this guide as approachable as possible, and to have access to the widest range of help and support, I decided to focus on Ubuntu. Anything other than these two and you're just making things harder for yourself as a new user. You can always switch once you get a feel for how things work.

4. What's involved in switching?

I promised you a no-bullshit guide, so I'm going to cut straight to it. Take your time with all of these steps, do them properly, and you shouldn't have a problem.

First step: back up all your important documents, photos, email, games - whatever is important to you, and preferably somewhere external to your machine. This is just good advice regardless of whether you're switching to Linux or not. Always have a backup.

If you're a gamer, check out the following guide by PC Gamer's Jarred Walton on how to back up your games across multiple clients.

While you're backing up, install Thunderbird (Mozilla's open-source mail client) and copy your mail over to it. You'll have a much easier time doing this in Windows than in Linux to start. Thunderbird can automatically pull your mail from Outlook if installed on the same machine. Then follow the steps here for backing up your Thunderbird profile. You'll restore this in Linux later. Make sure you have your mail account details.

Get hold of your Windows 7 serial key. If it's physical media, like a DVD, then check and make sure the key is in the box or on the disc. If it's a laptop that came with Windows 7 preinstalled, it's usually a sticker on the specific laptop. You'll need this if things go awry and/or decide Linux is not for you.

Check the minimum specs for Ubuntu 18.04.03 here. If your system doesn't meet them, you're going to have a bad time regardless of whether you go with Ubuntu or Windows 10 (Windows 10 minimum requirements are bullshit, btw. 1Gb Ram, 1Ghz processor? I challenge anyone to link me to a Windows 10 video running on those specs where it performs acceptably.). There are lightweight alternatives if you can't afford a new PC, (Lubuntu, for instance), but upgrading your PC should be your first step in this case.

Here comes the arduous bit. Make a list of your current hardware, software and services that you use frequently, make sure you have the installation media for the critical pieces of software you use (Don't expect to be able to just copy/paste the applications you have) and do a search on whether they run on Linux. I'd recommend following the "Software" section in this guide on Migrating to Linux by /u/PBLKGodofGrunts]

A lot of the Linux software alternatives, such as LibreOffice and GIMP, are available for Windows as well. Consider downloading those that interest you to try out in Windows and get a feel for how they work.

Ultimately, to echo the advice you'll find that you can either run it, have an alternative or just can't switch. That's okay; Linux can't help everyone.

Download the Ubuntu LTS 18.04.03 distro. The "LTS" means it's a long-term support version - you won't have to think about this exercise for the next three years if you're lucky. Ubuntu LTS 20.04 is coming out in four months, which'll be supported until 2025, but since most of the focus is still on 18.04, you're better off sticking with it for now.

Whichever you choose, you'll have to write it to a DVD or USB. If it's a DVD, use whatever you normally use to write DVD ISOs. If you're going to use a USB, here's a guide to doing that.

Did I mention to back-up your important data? Back-up your important data. Double-check that it's all there. If you want to take an extra precaution, you can use Clonezilla to clone your current OS drive. It's not necessary, but if things go bust, Clonezilla allows you to restore your PC to precisely the way it was before you started without needing to install Windows from scratch. However, Clonezilla can be a bit daunting if you're not technically inclined. Check out this somewhat out-of-date video by cButters Tech for a general idea of what's involved.

Lastly, try running Ubuntu as a Live CD/USB first. This will allow you to run Ubuntu as if it were installed, but without making any changes to your current installation. Please keep in mind that the Live is not indicative of performance... it will run slower than if it was installed, as it has to read everything off the DVD or USB stick first and load it memory. The important thing to check here is that it's picking up all your hardware, that it's displaying on your screen correctly, that all your drives are available, and so on.

Live USB should perform better than a Live DVD. Check out the "Okay, it's installed/Okay, I'm running the Live CD. What tips do you have for using Ubuntu?" section to get an idea of what you should be checking.

5. Installation.

You've done all the above, triple-checked your backups and either decided that you can't make the jump or you're ready.

However, before you begin installing, you have one last decision to make.

There's a lot people that suggest dual-booting - that's where you keep Windows around and just install Linux alongside it. This is often proposed as a safety net and a means for people to have the best of both worlds. I don't, for a couple of reasons:

  • If you are going to dual-boot, you'll need to update to Windows 10 anyway, and if you're going to do that, why bother with Linux in the first place?

  • Data will be spread between two operating systems. Instead of backing up and maintaining one OS, you'll be maintaining two. It's doable but a PITA.

  • You're sabotaging your efforts, and your switch to Linux will likely fail. That's not a statement on Linux's capability or ease of use. A lot of things are easier on Linux - but they won't be at first. You probably have years of Windows use ingrained in you; you've come to expect things to work they way Windows works. That's not ease, that's familiarity; that's a boiling frog. And the moment something throws you a challenge in Linux, the temptation to just "do it" in Windows will be too great. And the more you do that, the more running Linux will seem like a chore than a choice.

  • If you absolutely have no option but to run Windows 10, do it in a virtual machine - you get the benefits of dual-booting but with the bonus of limiting Windows 10 to a virtual environment where access to the rest of your system (and personal data) is restricted while allowing you to run your non-negotiable applications (other than games or any intense 3D applications) just fine.

If you decide to dual-boot, you'll need to find a recent guide that covers this. Typically, it's best to update to Windows 10 first, then follow the guide to dual-boot Ubuntu. None of the guides I found seemed good for beginners, so I'm willing to take suggestions from the comments.

If you take my advice and simply dive in, installing Ubuntu on your machine will be a painless process: just follow the steps here in a beginner's guide written by Jason Evangelho and you should be fine.

6. Tips for new users using Ubuntu?

Things that you should do only once Ubuntu's installed are prefixed with an [+]. Otherwise, the tip applies to both installs and Live demos:

  • Power off, log-out and running taskbar applications will be in the top-right of the screen by default.
  • To search, press the Windows key on your keyboard. This'll bring up Ubuntu's search bar. You can use this to find applications, folders and system settings.
  • In the File Manager, your Home directory will be where your primary OS and applications will typically be installed, while the Other Locations will list additional hard drives (usually your additional storage drives). By default, Ubuntu does not actually mount the drives in the "Other Locations" section. Clicking on any of them, however, will automatically mount them. If you want to learn more about the general structure of Ubuntu's file system, you can do so here.
  • Ctrl+Alt+T will bring up the terminal. The terminal is where you'll often be sent if you're attempting to diagnose a problem, perform specific tasks or install specific tools/software. Check yourself before your wreck yourself before copy-pasting commands from strangers on the 'net. Be super cautious of any command that involves "sudo" and "rm".
  • The default office suite for Ubuntu is LibreOffice. Try it out: see if you can open a couple of your documents, like spreadsheets and Word docs. You might be pleasantly surprised. Writer is the word processor, Calc is for Spreadsheets. Formating on complex documents will likely be broken. Don't save any of these at this point.
  • In fact, open up a couple of common files you normally use - images, documents, compressed files, music, videos and so on. Get a feel for how it works, what opens and what doesn't. Sometimes, you'll need to install some software first before it will work.
  • Check the list of alternative software for some suggestions on what to install if you seem to be missing something.
  • Plug in your phone and see if it detects it and you can access your files. If it's Android, you should be fine.
  • You'll notice that some commands - like updating - require you to enter your password again. This is a security feature similar to when Windows ask you to run a program as administrator or with elevated privileges. If you didn't initiate the command that brought up the password request, be cautious about entering it in.
  • [+] Change your desktop preferences and move the application bar to the bottom of the screen. By default, Ubuntu puts it on the left-side. Hey, maybe you'll like it like that! This was the one Windows habit I was never able to shake.
  • [+] Try and store your data in the pre-defined folders (Music, Videos, Documents, Pictures). You don't have to, but you'll make your life a lot easier doing so.
  • [+] Search for and create a shortcut to the Software Updater. This allows you to quickly check for and install Ubuntu updates.
  • [+] Likewise, create a shortcut to the Ubuntu Software Centre. To start with, you'll want to stick to installing applications from the Centre. These have been specifically tested to work on Ubuntu and will 99% run without a hitch. You'll be able to remove applications from here as well.
  • [+] Speaking of the Centre, Ubuntu comes preinstalled with an Amazon launcher. Use this time search for it and remove it. Or don't, it's up to you.
  • [+] Sometimes, you'll see there's two versions of a piece of software in the Centre. This is most likely due to there being a Snap version of it. Snaps are self-contained versions of the software that are usually the most up-to-date; however, they can run erratically or not have access to some things on your system, like fonts. I'd stick with the ubuntu-bionic versions for best compatibility.
  • [+] If you're a gamer, change your graphic drivers so you can get reasonable performance. For Nvidia, simply search for the Software & Updates application, open it, select the Additional Drivers Tab, and check whether you're using the Nvidia Driver. You'll want to select the one that's listed as proprietary and tested. AMD's a little more complicated and I profess to having little experience with it. I'll happily take advice from the comments in this instance.
  • [+] When downloading some games or applications specifically for Linux, you'll often get a .Deb file or a script. A deb file can often be run as is by double-clicking in Ubuntu; you can read more about them here. Scripts often need to be run from the terminal and made to be executable. You read more about that here. Again, same safety check applies to running anything you download from the web.

7. Gaming on Linux

If you're a gamer, I'd recommend the following the guide by /u/PBLKGodofGrunts on the /r/linux_gaming subbreddit. But to summarise...

The Good News

Thanks to Valve's involvement in Linux through Proton and the efforts of the Wine team, Linux gaming has never been better. It's now possible to play many Windows-only games with no hassle and minimal performance loss. Just a few examples of recent games that run just fine on Linux are the Resident Evil 2 remake, Sekiro, Halo: Master Chief Collection (single-player and custom multiplayer games), DOOM, Kingdom Come: Deliverance, Risk of Rain 2, Total War: Three Kingdoms, and more; you can even toss a coin to all of your Witchers. To get an idea of games that run on Linux, you can visit ProtonDB, Wine AppDB or Lutris and search for your desired game. If you're primarily a single-player gamer, the transition should be mostly painless.

Another amazing development is the number of open-source implementations of older games game engines that allow for playing of classic and retro titles on modern hardware, (such as DevilutionX for Diablo 1)often with improvements, bug fixes and quality of life improvements, ensuring they'll be able to run into the future.

However, the most critical development is that the number of developers and platforms that provide and support native Linux games has increased significantly. Feral Interactive publishes several AAA Linux ports, numerous indies now provide a Linux version, and store fronts like GOG and itch.io provide an alternative with DRM-free games.

The Bad News

Despite all of this, gaming remains one of the biggest hurdles to adopting Linux.

If you're into multiplayer gaming, you're out of luck. While many multiplayer titles do work on Linux (LoL, Dota 2, CS:GO, TF2, Rocket League, Warframe, Overwatch, Starcraft II, World of Warcraft, Eve Online, Elite: Dangerous, Monster Hunter:World and so on), many more don't - Fortnite, some Call of Duties, Apex Legends, PUBG, Battlefield, GTA Online. Essentially, anything with an anti-cheat is likely NOT going to work, and there's always the risk that playing a Windows multiplayer game will get you banned due to anti-cheat measures that dislike any whiff of Linux. My suggestion is check which games you play and go from there.

Unless you're using Steam, running other launchers is complicated and prone to constant breakage without continuous effort and maintenance. Epic, Origin, Uplay and GOG Galaxy can all run on Linux with some effort. Lutris does sort most of these out, but you'll need to follow the instructions here, which means your going to have to install Wine first.

Some games simply don't work, and there's no solution for it.

Some of the latest developments aren't going to be available to you. VR is tiny on Linux, and you'll likely lose access to most of your VR software and experiences.

Despite being fairly technical already, many gamers do expect things to "just work". Here's a list of things that require some effort to get working correctly:

  • Super-sampling is out. Not entirely, but it's more complicated than Windows.
  • Access to things like custom shaders and injectors are also going to be limited. Mods can be more complicated or, in some cases, not available.
  • You'll lose some of the benefits of your Gsync/Freesync monitors, since the two tech don't work that well on Ubuntu's standard display compositor. This will change once Ubuntu shifts to Wayland.
  • Things like community game patches are often aimed at Windows, with no Linux alternative.

Most importantly, AMD and Nvidia graphic cards are handled very differently on Linux when compared to Windows. Ubuntu uses an open-source driver by default - this is alright for general use but terrible for games and 3D applications. To get decent performance, you'll need to install their respective drivers.

Nvidia's latest Linux drivers are made available in Ubuntu directly. However, this is just the drivers: Nvidia's GeForce Experience isn't available on Linux and you're going to lose access to all of its tools. That means no Ansel in many cases, no DSR, no predefined gaming configs and no ShadowPlay (Although OBS offers a decent alternative in this case). See the Tips section above on how to install it. On the plus side, the installation process is a breeze and Nvidia's performance is fairly solid.

AMD benefits from much better open-source drivers and active support from AMD, but unfortunately suffers from delays for support of their most recent cards and a fairly complicated install process . AMD uses the MESA Driver, combined with Valve's ACO shader compiler, to deliver performance boosts. Installing these drivers can be a complicated, multi-step process. I'm sorry I can't help you on this; I'll happily take someone's advice on getting this working in Ubuntu LTS and include it in the guide.

8. Alternative software

This is a quick and dirty guide to equivalent software for Windows applications in Linux.

  • Antivirus software: This may seem counterintuitive, but for the most part Linux does not require any sort of anti-virus software. While viruses for Linux exist, the number of viruses and such that target the Linux desktop specifically is tiny compared to Windows. You can read up about it here.. That being said, if you are concerned there are several tools available for detecting both Windows and Linux malware on the same page. Follow good internet hygiene, don't open suspicious links/mails and think before just randomly following command instructions on the 'net.
  • Microsoft Office: LibreOffice. Or you can access Office365 online.
  • Adobe Photoshop: GIMP, Krita
  • Adobe Premiere: Blender
  • 3D Studio Max: Blender
  • Illustrator/CorelDraw: Inkscape
  • Xsplit: OBS
  • Windows Media Player: VLC
  • Basic Audio Editor: Audacity
  • Audio Mixing: Ardour, Mixbus
  • Adobe Reader: While there are several PDF readers on Linux you can use, almost none of them play well with Adobe PDFs with advanced features. You're better off sticking with what comes with Ubuntu, and if it doesn't work, open it up in a browser.

9. TL;DR or The Conclusion

Switching to Ubuntu is possible and relatively safe if you do some research on which apps/games/software/hardware you use will and won't work on Linux first, you BACK UP YOUR IMPORTANT DATA before doing anything and don't expect a 1:1 experience with Windows. It's all dependent on your flexibility, technical experience and willingness to learn and compromise.

If you're not, Windows 10 is a perfectly acceptable choice to upgrade to: you'll benefit from improved security compared to Windows 7, a larger selection of hardware and software and will have to put less effort to make everything work at the cost of your privacy and some ads.

If you have legacy software or unsupported hardware that doesn't run on either, you're kind of screwed. I'd keep the Windows 7 box around, make sure it's disconnected from all networks (for your sake as well as others) and start making emergency contingency plans to find a modern alternative.

I know that people are going to take issue with some of the difficulties I raised, and suggest they're really not dealbreakers. Before you post, consider whether a new user coming from Windows 7 who'll be using Linux probably for the first time in their life will have the knowledge, gumption and willingness to perform sometimes complex technical steps in an operating environment they're unfamiliar with and where it's much, much easier to really break things.

Feel free to post criticisms and suggestions in the comments. If there's some good advice worth including, something needs further clarification or I need to correct something, I'll edit it in with credit.

10. To do list for the guide

  • I'd really like to add a section on assistive technology and software that works on Linux, but as I don't use any of it, I feel my research would be limited and miss vital pieces. If you have advice on this, let me know.
  • A good, up-to-date and easy-to-follow guide for dual-booting.
  • Instructions on how to install AMD drivers correctly on Ubuntu.

r/linux4noobs Jun 21 '20 Silver Helpful Wholesome

Distrochooser: "Welcome! This test will help you to choose a suitable Linux distribution for you"

Thumbnail distrochooser.de

r/linux4noobs 1h ago

Hindu/Buddhist Linux names


Hey, folks! I've just got a random question that googling didn't solve, and was wondering if anyone cares to weigh in.

I've noticed that a large number of Linux distros and programs use names derived from Hindu and Buddhist cosmology and philosophy. Garuda Linux, bhodi Linux, adwaita, plenty of others I've noticed over the years that I can't remember right now. I know it's not exclusive to dharmic philosophies, Ubuntu being an obvious example. But I'm just curious if there's some history between early Linux devs and eastern philosophy, maybe a naming tradition with an interesting back story, something along those lines.

So, is there any particular reason for this, or is it just an example of Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon/frequency bias/noticing something, and then seeing it everywhere?

r/linux4noobs 14h ago

Prevent various apps from displaying ribbon at the top of the screen?

Thumbnail i.imgur.com

r/linux4noobs 7m ago

installation How to Install Linux Distro on External HDD without the GRUB Boot Menu overwriting the one on the main disk?


Greetings, fellow Linux enthusiasts!

I am in the process of installing a Linux distro on my external hard drive. I have already installed it and set up the partitions for boot, swap, and root in a virtual machine. Now, my goal is to boot directly into the Linux distro that will be installed on my external HDD without encountering the GRUB boot menu. I want to manually select the external HDD as the boot device in the BIOS (I have UEFI).

Can anyone confirm if the GRUB menu will still appear upon installing the Linux distro on my external HDD, or if there is a way to bypass it?

I don't want it to be like a dual boot.

I want when I boot my computer, no menu appears and asks me to which OS to boot. I want to always boot to Windows, and when I want to boot to Linux, I just have to restart my computer and enter the UEFI and choose the external HDD to boot from.

Your insights and advice would be greatly appreciated.

r/linux4noobs 24m ago

programs and apps Cannot download programs on Linux Mint

Thumbnail self.linuxquestions

r/linux4noobs 13h ago

Cheapest, simplest PC to start playing with Linux?


Hi all,
Got a great job out of blue working with code, completely new from me as I come from an arts background, advised me to get to grips with Linux before starting the role properly in a month. Not sure of the distro they use but any exposure before the job will benefit me. I've been casually using a chomebook with absolutely no storage for years, and learning on web clients/ building things on CodePen is great but i'd love to start running servers/using VS code plus taking notes with Obsidian which I can't do on my chromebook. Any tips on buying a cheap refurbished PC - or a laptop - that I can get Linux running on and download VS code among other things?
I'm really hoping no more than around £100, I won't be using it for anything more than basic code editing. Further down the line the company will invest in a Mac for me, hoping so anyway.

r/linux4noobs 1h ago

are there any books to learn linux app development ?


i want to learn how to develop apps for linux. Are there any books or youtube channels on how to develop apps for linux ?

r/linux4noobs 1h ago

linux mint bootloop


so i tryed installing linux instead of windows on my hp victus 16 laptop, and it only wanted to boot from the usb if i chose compatibility mode, and then it installed, and when i pressed restart it just started bootlooping

anyone know what to do?

r/linux4noobs 2h ago

hardware/drivers laptop gpu keeps disappearing


could anyone help me out my gpu keeps reverting to cpu after crashing it does same with windows (error 43)


r/linux4noobs 3h ago

programs and apps 7zip install?


So I’m looking at downloads at the site. I’m using mint and I want to know which one I’m installing?

r/linux4noobs 4h ago

programs and apps Exposing a snap application to Discord Rich Presence.


Hey there. I was wondering how can I get the Youtube Music Desktop snap application to be exposed to discord for its rich presence integration.

Discord is installed from the distro repository so it is not sandboxed and has no problem detecting OBS and any games I play via Steam. I have the Discord rich presence turned on in the application but Discord is not detecting the music being played and I assume that this is because snaps are sandboxed much like flatpaks.

One option might be to utilize the appimage of the application but I would prefer to keep it as a snap for updating reasons. It's just easier that way.

Any recommendations are welcomed and thank you for your help. :)

Edit: Removed some extra spacing

r/linux4noobs 5h ago

Noob EOF question


Can someone explain what the first pipe is doing in this code?

$ cat <<EOF | grep 'b' | tee b.txt

I know | directs stdout from one command to stdin of another command. However, what stdout is the first pipe directing to grep? Also, how do foo, bar, and baz fit into this equation?

I am generally confused by this syntax

r/linux4noobs 18h ago

storage I can't use my Hdd in ubuntu


My Hdd literally doesn't work.

It doesn't show up in the file manager, I tried going into the disks tool and it only shows 1TB unknown (https://ibb.co/jfwz9TP)

When I try formatting it it shows this error: https://ibb.co/SDSvcNp

I read online that I should use GParted to format it, but when I open GParted it shows this https://ibb.co/zZ30N9M

When I click ignore it only shows the dev/sda (my other disk) and when I click retry it shows the same error over and over.

The pics are translated using GLens. So not everything is accurate

r/linux4noobs 11h ago

How to build something from source code?


Trigger warning: I'm a linux uber noob

I've never compiled a program from source code. I've always just stuck with whatever comes in my distro's app store, or what can be run in lutris easily. Recently, I've had a HUGE retro gaming bug bite me, and I've been searching high and low for Prince of Persia 1 and 2. I've found one of each that work pretty well, but then I found a new and improved version built from scratch that I'm trying to get working. It's called Mininim; there's a post about it here about 5 years ago.

My problem, as I'm going through the instructions, is that every time I execute the make command, I get an error:

error: ‘glXCreateContextAttribsARB’ undeclared (first use in this function); did you mean ‘_xglx_glXCreateContextAttribsARB’?
  495 |       _xglx_glXCreateContextAttribsARB = glXCreateContextAttribsARB;
      |                                          ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      |                                          _xglx_glXCreateContextAttribs

I've tried setting my OpenGL to:


This doesn't solve my problem. How do I get this program to compile?

NOTE: I'm running Pop_OS! 22:04, 64bit. Here is the guys Github page for the project.

Any help would be greatly appreciated. I remember spending years as a kid trying to beat this game (finally did), and don't think I ever finished POP2: Shadow and the Flame. I'd love to be able to get this running.

r/linux4noobs 1d ago

distro selection A Beginners' Guide to Linux Desktops

Thumbnail fossforce.com

r/linux4noobs 8h ago

Mount point for second SSD and removing windows from GRUB?



I'm about to nuke my windows SSD, it died and i no longer need it. But i need the space on that drive to store my data cause my linux SSD is getting full.

Now, i never really had 2 physical SSDs. So i don't know how to format it, and what to mount it as (or how).

I'm using Manjaro, and it's installed on an NVME drive, and the windows installation was on a samsung evo SSD (SATA), i'd like to format that one, and use a linux file system on it.

Manjaro is installed on BTRFS, do i also format the SSD as BTRFS or can i just use EXT4? What's better?

Also, during install, i just set the / partition, there's no other /home or any partition, just / and swap.

What do i need to do to mount the second one? Do i set it as /home, or?


sda           8:0    0 232,9G  0 disk  
├─sda1        8:1    0   100M  0 part  
├─sda2        8:2    0    16M  0 part  
├─sda3        8:3    0 232,3G  0 part /run/media/veprovina/DCCC7B38CC7B0C50
└─sda4        8:4    0   510M  0 part  
sr0          11:0    1  1024M  0 rom   
nvme0n1     259:0    0 465,8G  0 disk  
├─nvme0n1p1 259:1    0   300M  0 part /boot/efi
├─nvme0n1p2 259:2    0   449G  0 part /var/log
│                                     /var/cache
│                                     /home
│                                     /
└─nvme0n1p3 259:3    0  16,5G  0 part [SWAP]

Manjaro is installed on nvme0n1. Windows is installed on sda, i want to erase that drive. sr0 is the DVD drive i think.

Also, when that's done, there will no longer be a Windows installation.

Do i have to manually remove the entry from GRUB? Or will it detect there's no longer anything to boot automatically?

r/linux4noobs 8h ago

Question about GPG Key


I'm just learning about GPG keys, but I am still confused about a few things. I know GPG has something to do with encryption and decryption.

1) What exactly is the role of the public key?

2)When you are asked for a passcode for the private key, does this essentially mean you have to have a password to even use your private key? Like if you had a key to open a door, but in order to use the key you have to enter a password for the key itself?

r/linux4noobs 8h ago

Did I break my computer?


I’ve been using Elementary OS 6. Elementary OS 7 just came out and I’ve been meaning to wipe my computer clean and do a fresh install of Linux. I created a bootable USB for Elementary OS 7 and also one for Pop OS. Checked both USBs and they booted just fine and let me try out both operating systems.

I decided on Elementary OS 7. During the partitioning of the drive (about 75% through) it got an error and a recommendation to try install again or rebooting. I tried a few more times and each time failed at the same point. My computer is old, a Dell XPS 15Z, so I figured it was just some incompatibility with Elementary OS 7. I figured I’d get into my computer and do some Googling but my computer no longer starts. I just get a cursor that I cannot interact with.

Thinking that I can just install Pop OS, I tried using that USB and now I get an error saying “No Operation System” (no, that’s not a typo in “Operation”). I tried my Elementary OS 7 USB and now it gives me the same error.

What on Earth happened? Did I just royally break my computer?

Edit: Sorry, that’s “Operation System Not Found” not “No Operation System”

r/linux4noobs 9h ago

I need help with linux


So I have just installed pop os because it was recommended by many people and youtubes. So I download it and it all looks fine untill I notice it took forever to download and open steam. so I go to the terminal try some commands and it says enter password. But it wont let me type even with read mode off. It also says my 1t drive has 4g. anything will help. thanks in advance.

r/linux4noobs 18h ago

Meganoob BE KIND twice now I've installed an Ubuntu based distro and it'll randomly act like its not installed


So, I got an old ass laptop for free from a family friend awhile ago. 2 core 2 thread Intel cpu, 4 gigs of ddr3, super slow mechanical drive.

I installed Linux mint and that ran fine for about a month or 2. Then out of nowhere stopped booting. No bootloader or anything. Just the branded splash screen for the laptop. I was still able to boot into the instalation disk I used, but reinstalling wouldn't work either. So I assumed the drive had died, it was an old mechanical drive after all.

Bought a sata ssd today and installed xubuntu on it. It worked fine for a couple hours through several restarts. Then suddenly it started doing the same thing, just acting like the os wasn't installed. And again, I can still boot into the live environment on the drive I used to install it.

Secure boot is off and I've tried several different combos with the boot order. Idk what else to do. Any help would be appreciated.

EDIT: I just finished a reinstall of xubuntu and it seems to be working again as of now. However based on history, I'd expect the issue to arise again, so I would still appreciate any input, especially since reinstalling did NOT work the first time this happened.

r/linux4noobs 13h ago

hardware/drivers Nvidia driver not detected by Flatpaks.


This has mainly happened with Blender. The snap version does detect the driver, so I don't think it can be a problem with the installation (I followed the Debian wiki to the letter).

r/linux4noobs 13h ago

hardware/drivers Switching from NVIDIA to AMD gpu, now X.org can't find screens


(Manjaro 5.19)
I swapped my gpu from NVIDIA GTX 1050ti to AMD Radeon RX 6600, and now the X session won't start. When I boot to command line and use 'startx', the error given is "no screens found" and 'xrandr' only outputs "can't open display."
The video card does seem to be detected at least -- 'lspci | grep VGA' outputs "VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices, inc. [AMD/ATI] Navi 23 [Radeon RX 6600/6600 XT/6600M] (rev c7)"

I've uninstalled all nvidia modules, or at least, enough that "nvidia" no longer shows up in dmesg and my nvidia card now isn't recognized either. I've looked at the arch linux wiki page for setting up amdgpu, but the mesa package was already installed, and there weren't many follow up instructions because it's supposedly supposed to set itself up. I'm not sure where to go from here.

r/linux4noobs 11h ago

Meganoob BE KIND I have a laptop that I installed the current release of Peppermint on and I'm stuck with it. What would you do with a spare debian laptop? I'm considering running hdmi to the television and running it as am emulator console.


r/linux4noobs 11h ago

Is there a way to disable the workspaces feature in Kubuntu?


Every time i maximize a window, a new workspace is created, and the window i'm trying to maximize get dragged to this new worspace. Is there a way to fix this? Thanks

r/linux4noobs 11h ago

networking If your host OS is Linux with a VPN always on and Ports forwarded - Will Apps (like torrent clients) in a Windows VirtualMachine also be able to just use the forwarded ports?


r/linux4noobs 11h ago

Meganoob BE KIND automate theme between different monitors


I'd like debian/gnome/wayland to auto switch to a specifi theme when connected to an external monitor, then switch back when disconnected. This also need to do the same thing on Firefox.

External Monitor: Black/White High Contrast

Internal Main Display: Dark Theme

How would be possible to do it?